Sep 15, Gyrodactyluschileani n. sp. is the first Gyrodactylus species reported from Chile. It is an ectoparasite living on fins and skin of a small fish, the. Gyrodactylus species are ubiquitous monogenean parasites of teleosts with over .. Gyrodactylus sp. occurs on the skin and the others on the gills. None of. analysis that Gyrodactylus corleonis sp. n. from S. typhle and Gyrodactylus neretum sp. n. from S. scovelli represent distinct species. Both G. corleonis and G .
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Deberiotstraat 32, B Leuven, Belgium. Historically, non-native species of Gyrodactylis Poeciliidae have been used to control larval stages of the Asian tiger mosquito, Stegomyia albopicta Reinert, Harbach et Kitching, throughout Italy.
The potential utility of indigenous populations of Gyroactylus fasciatus Valenciennes Teleostei: Cyprinodontidae as an appropriate alternative biological control is currently being explored. A subsequent morphological and molecular study identified this as being a new species. Light and scanning electron microscopical SEM examination of the opisthaptoral armature and their comparison with all other recorded species suggested morphological similarities to Gyrodactylus rugiensoides Huyse et Volckaert, from Pomatoschistus minutus Pallas.
Features of the ventral bar, however, permit its discrimination from G.
Sequencing of the nuclear ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacers 1 and 2 and the 5. This represents the first species of Gyrodactylus to be described from Aphanius and, to date, has the longest ITS1 bp sequenced from any Gyrodactylus.
Additional sampling of Cervia Saline throughout the year, gyrodactyylus G. The ability of G. These findings, together with the fact that A. Toothcarp is a colloquial term used to describe members of the order Cyprinodontiformes, which comprises ten fish families, namely Anablepidae, Aplocheilidae, Cyprinodontidae, Fundulidae, Goodeidae, Nothobranchiidae, Poeciliidae, Profundulidae, Rivulidae and Valenciidae [ 1 ]. Aphanius fasciatus has a widespread distribution along the Italian coastline, principally in brackish waters [ 3 ], although increasing anthropogenic activity has caused a general decline in numbers.
For this reason, A. During a recent research study investigating the artificial reproduction of A.
Infected tissues were removed from the moribund fish and subsequently sent to the Institute of Aquaculture, University of Stirling Scotland, UK for identification. Given the importance of A. Poeciliidaemore information on its Gyrodactylus fauna was needed. A total gtrodactylus ten adult A. All ten specimens collected from the drying, landlocked pools were moribund individuals, a consequence of reduced water availability and increased algal growth.
Specimens of Gyrodactylus were removed using mounted triangular surgical needles. All ten fish were infected but given the condition of the fish on collection, the gyrodaxtylus of infection can only be estimated at between parasites per fish. The alcohol-fixed parasites were subsequently rinsed in distilled water and representatives prepared as whole mounts using ammonium picrate glycerine following the procedure detailed by Malmberg [ 10 ].
Additional specimens had their opisthaptors removed using a scalpel, which were then individually subjected to proteolytic digestion on glass slides, as described in Paladini et al.
For scanning electron microscopy SEMsingle specimens of Gyrodactylus were subjected to full proteolytic digestion on 11 mm round glass coverslips to obtain tissue-free attachment hooks. The coverslips were then attached onto aluminium stubs with bi-adhesive round labels, sputter-coated with gold using an Edwards SB sputter coater and then examined using a JEOL JSM SEM operating at an accelerating voltage of 10 kv.
Drawings of the taxonomic features were made from the captured images. The gyrodactylid material prepared from A. In addition, type material of the six Gyrodactylus species known to parasitise cyprinodontid hosts, held in the U.
These are Gyrodactylus cyprinodontis Mizelle et Kritsky, holotype and paratype acc. The bodies of 2 specimens were individually transferred to a 0.
The PCR products were visualised using ethidium bromide on a 1. The sequences with the highest similarity to our sequences were downloaded and the 5. Pair-wise genetic distances were computed in MEGA 4 according to the evolutionary model that was selected by jModelTest 0.
The sequences were also scanned for repeat elements using the program Tandem Repeats Finder [ 18 ]. Aphanius fasciatus ValenciennesCyprinodontidae “South European toothcarp”, “nono”. Fifteen specimens were studied for light microscopy. Additionally, three paratypes acc.
The sequence fragment of approximately bp encoding partial 18S 32 bpITS1 bp5. A species profile including host and taxonomic details is provided on the on-line databases http: Named after the Italian generic name gyrodactyluz a hypersaline water body i. Drawings of the opisthaptoral hard parts and male copulatory organ MCO of Gyrodactylus salinae n. A size invariant comparison of the marginal hook sickle of Gyrodactylus salinae n.
Measurements are provided in micrometres and follow those detailed in Shinn et al. Due to the limited number of G.
Based on the measurements of fifteen specimens. Body elongate, long, wide. Prohaptor with a single pair of cephalic lobes each bearing a gland and a spike sensillum. Pharynx small, anterior pharyngeal bulb Intestinal crura extending beyond the anterior edge of the testes.
Gyrodactylus – Wikipedia
Presence or absence of excretory bladders not discernible on whole mounts. Male copulatory organ MCO spherical, MCO position variable, usually on the left, posterior to the posterior pharyngeal bulb. Total gyrodactylu of hamuli Dorsal bar attachment points on hamuli 9.
Dorsal bar simple, Ventral bar triangular in approximate gygodactylus, Total length of marginal hooks Sickle shaft approximately perpendicular to the base, very slightly angled forward, proportionately slender, turns at a near right angle into a narrow tip which terminates at a point beyond the perpendicular limit of the toe.
Sickle distal width 3. Aperture of marginal sickle, open, 5. Sickle base has a flat bridge; triangular toe 1. The sickle heel appears square in dimensions in specimens prepared for light microscopy but SEM images reveal a rounded heel with an additional prominent button for muscle attachment Figure 1b-e. The total fragment bp consists of the 3′ end of the 18S subunit 32 bpthe ITS1 bpthe 5.
Both specimens had identical sequences. Neonephrotus sub-genera sub-genera according to Malmberg [ 10 ] based on the pair-wise distances Tamura-Nei gamma corrected distances [ 21 ] using the 5. The pair-wise distance with G. The ITS1 of G. Pair-wise genetic distances gtrodactylus on the 5. Morphologically, the opisthaptoral hooks, notably the marginal hook sickles, of G. Given the potential overlapping distribution of these two fish hosts within the Mediterranean Sea [ 1 ], it is important to detail the subtle features in hook morphology that permit their discrimination from one another.
Two paratypes of G. The paratypes were re-measured and the marginal hook sickle re-drawn and overlaid with G.
The present study, however, provides an additional set of measurements taken from the type material of G. Although the hamuli roots in both species narrow after their union with the shaft, giving the anterior edge of the dorsal bar attachment point a small but distinct edge, this appears to be more prominent in G.
The ventral bar attachment points also differ; those of G. The prominent ventral bar processes and the longer, slender ventral bar membrane of G. The similar morphology of the marginal hook sickles of both species though, requires careful examination. The union of the marginal hook shaft with the sickle divides the ps of the sickle base into 3: The sickle shaft and sickle tip of G.
A comparison of soft body features suggests that the posterior pharynx bulb of G. The MCOs of the two species are similar in length G.
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A molecular comparison of G. The ITS1 sequences were more difficult to align, due to length differences up to bp. Both species belong to the so-called marine rugiensis -group that also includes G. Over species of Gyrodactylus have been described [ 1920 ] and only six are known to parasitise cyprinodontids, all of them are recorded from Cyprinodon spp. No supporting molecular data, however, is available for any of these species.
The marginal hook sickles of these species were re-drawn from the paratypes and holotypes, where available, and a comparison of their morphology with G. The marginal hook sickles of G. These three species gyrodacrylus found on the same host, Cyprinodon n. The opisthaptoral hooks of the type material of G.
When the gyrodactylid fauna on fish species belonging to the family Cyprinodontidae are considered and compared, then there are a number of species which possess similar marginal hook sickle morphologies.
This has also been noted among species parasitising fish belonging to the pipefish family Syngnathidae, where the species Gyrodactylus eyipayipi Vaughan, Christison, Hansen et Shinn,Gyrodactylus neretum Paladini, Cable, Fioravanti, Faria et Shinn,Gyrodactylus pisculentus Williams, Kritsky, Dunnigan, Lash et Klein, and Gyrodactylus shorti Holliman,all possess a similar marginal hook sickle morphology [ 24 ].
The same is seen within species parasitising Poecilidae, whose gyrodactylids can be roughly allocated, based on their marginal hook sickle morphology, to one of three groups. The first group encompasses species with a large, approximately triangular sickle base and reduced sickle tips i.
The second group of species which has large open faced sickles with a double angled sickle shaft and narrow sickle gyroeactylus i.
Gyrodactylus species parasitising different family members belonging to the ggrodactylus Cyprinodontiformes. In addition to these, there are a number of other ” Gyrodactylus ” species parasitising cyprinodontiform hosts that appear in the literature.