Title, Colombia: ciudad y violencia. Colección Ciudad y democracia. Authors, Alvaro Camacho Guizado, Alvaro Guzmán Barney. Publisher, Ed. Foro Nacional, . Title, Credo, necesidad y codicia: los alimentos de la guerra. Author, Alvaro Camacho Guizado. Published, Length, 14 pages. Export Citation, BiBTeX. ÁLVARO CAMACHO GUIZADO’s 2 research works with 23 citations and 38 reads , including: From Smugglers to Warlords: Twentieth Century Colombian Drug.

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This is witnessed by the means used by urban youth to attain respect and recognition. Those who are familiar with the situation in slvaro areas maintain that there are two different coca markets.

Amazon Advertising Find, attract, and engage customers. The main difference is that while the FARC insurgents are parasites who live off of the narcotics traffic by collecting taxes on production and initial stage of the traffic, the paramilitary squads are a parasitory creation of the drug lords, who set paramilitary purposes and goals.

Colombia Loses Álvaro Camacho Guizado

Their shipments, although smaller, are more numerous. At any rate, narcotics traffickers have had an extremely negative influence on Colombian common morals. Gunmen recruited by narcotics traffickers have raised the homicide rates in some cities and enlisted large numbers of young people from the poorer quarters as sicarios hired killersand for general delinquency purposes.

Under the Barco Administration, Colombia received international aid to compensate, if only to a small degree, the financial costs of the war on drugs. Other government agencies also carry out local associational activities through “mid-objectives” crop substitution programs. Nonetheless, caeteris paribusthe only way to explain what occurred in Colombia is by recognizing that narcotics traffickers were widely accepted in different social circles at one time. Another alvaor which keeps humans from contact with the herbicide is the fact that the growers hide in the jungle as soon as they hear the Counternarcotics Police helicopters.

Further queries would refer to the fragmentation or dispersal -and displacement by Mexican, Peruvian and Bolivian organizations- of Colombian narcotics-trafficking organizations as a result of governmental efforts.

Some government officials maintain that one hectare planted with coca will yield about 2, pounds of coca leaf the equivalent of 1. That which identifies them is the aim to accumulate riches and social status by illegal means, the use of violence and bribery, the search for social recognition, their urban-poor origins, and prior delinquency records. Traffic exacts a high social toll, and Colombia should therefore apply repressive cmacho against it.


This does not coincide with data forthcoming from direct sources requests for attention from different communities, schools and organizations. It makes the Colombian State into an intermediary between the delinquent and the judiciary of another country, which spells the end of enhancing criminal-intelligence gathering in Colombia.

Colombia Loses Álvaro Camacho Guizado | NACLA

Rest in peace my dear friend. Since only large landowners can afford extensive cattle raising, a collateral effect of environmental damage gjizado the fostering of land monopolization processes. As regards poppy, one hectare means the loss of two and a half hectares of Andean cloud forest.

They are, on the contrary, quite conservative. This vegetation, which is what prevents soil erosion from the impact of rain, winds, or water courses, is being either burned or destroyed by biocides herbicides, pesticides or fungicides.

Numerous experts are highly critical of the government’s drug policy. In consequence, Rocha depicts two scenarios -minimal and maximal- for cocaine exports.

Other policies are more debatable, as in the case of the “faceless” justice system, harsher minimum mandatory sentences and extradition of Colombian nationals for sentencing abroad; these have both positive and negative aspects.

Nowadays, however, the most common modes of conveyance are maritime, mainly alvxro the Pacific Ocean. They have also coined the expression “hydra effect” to refer to attempts at eradicating narcotics production and commerce which generally lead to the dispersal of both production and commerce thus neutralizing counternarcotics initiatives.

As in the case of all illicit crops, the estimates vary considerably -from 35, tococa-cultivated hectares. In fact, illegal entrepreneurs, though identified as delinquents, are widely accepted -even if not always openly- by the intermediate and upper social circles in their localities.

The local market which is made up of those farmers who plant small plots and sell their coca leaves to the richer peasants of the region, which then process the leaves in a rudimentary fashion and sell cocaine paste and low-quality cocaine to the dealers. State officials, peasant leaders and big business promoted large-scale giuzado of lulo fruit algaro sale to sugar-processing industries whereupon the peasant farmers proceeded to substitute all their other crops for lulo. This, of course, cannot be said of the whole of society.


It is extremely difficult to know for sure how many intermediaries take part in the whole process, from processing to smuggling narcotics out of the country. Among others, the fact that the coca leaf is a sacred and revered substance in their culture. Many of them have improved their finances thanks to loans which they grant to direct producers, who are often forced to cede their lands and developments when unable to pay back the loan.

It stirred up traffickers who responded with brutal and generalized terrorism at the end of the 80s and beginning of the 90s. The growing of the coca bush has inevitably led to their involvement in the narcotics traffic.

In fact, they serve as role models inciting young people to migrate to the production areas. Regional studies in the Valle del Cauca, however, highlight the impact of the narcotics traffic on the region’s s boom.

Nevertheless, independent researchers agree that official data falls short of the facts. In general, direct producers in those areas a,varo by the insurgency always turn to the “local” guerrilla groups for conflict resolution and claims that justice be done. Comparatively, the first survey, carried out in [20]indicated higher licit-drugs consumption rates and lower illicit-drugs consumption.

There seems to be worldwide consensus regarding the fact that the competent authorities in charge of fighting the war on drugs are the police, the judiciary and the social sector of the State, and this is in general the way the Colombian State has viewed the matter. Lastly, regional and local government officials often connive with growers or traffickers hindering program implementation.