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Previous issue Next issue. A hysteresis in the relationship between zonal flows alm electron heating is observed alaam by using gyrokinetic simulations in fusion plasmas. Beyond this transition, even if the electron temperature is lowered to a moderate value, the plasma fails to recover a dynamic state with strong zonal flows.

Then, as the electron temperature decreases further, a new transition appears, at a temperature lower than the first transition, below which the zonal flows are stronger than they were initially. The confinement of the plasma and the heat flux are thus found to be sensitive to the history of the magnetized plasma. These transitions are associated with large exchanges of energy between the modes corresponding to instabilities and zonal flows.

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We also observe that up to the first transition it is possible to use a control method to stimulate the appearance of zonal flows and therefore the confinement of the plasma. Beyond that transition, this control method is no longer effective. Plasma elongation effects on turbulence and zonal flow are explicitly investigated for the first time with global bounce-averaged gyrokinetic simulations for a reveolle trapped electron mode CTEM.

As the most efficient steady state turbulence simulation scheme for this problem, bounce-averaged gyrokinetic simulation provides deeper insights into nonlinear physics separated from the linear effects in the investigation. Based on studies for a limited range of parameters, our results show that shorter radial scale zonal flows which are prominent for CTEM are more enhanced with higher elongation leading to reduced transport.

According to the reveill time radial correlation function, potential ala, exhibits two radial characteristic scales similar to previous gyrokinetic simulation and experimental measurements. A dual mode propagating in counter directions is observed with a stronger sheared zonal flow for higher elongation.

The Chinese fusion engineering testing reactor CFETR will demonstrate tritium self- sufficiency using a tritium breeding blanket for the tritium fuel cycle. The temperature control mechanism TCM involves the tritium production of the breeding blanket and has an impact on tritium self-sufficiency. The key concerns regarding the blanket design for tritium production under temperature field akam are depicted. A systematic theory on the TCM is established based on a multiplier blanket model.

In particular, a closed-loop method is developed for the mechanism with universal function solutions, which is employed in the CFETR blanket design activity for tritium production. A tritium accumulation phenomenon is found close to the coolant in the blanket interior, which has a very important impact on current blanket concepts using water coolant inside the blanket.

In addition, an optimal tritium breeding ratio TBR method based on the TCM is proposed, combined with revfille hydraulics and finite element technology. Meanwhile, eeveille energy gain factor is adopted to estimate neutron heat deposition, rveeille is a key parameter relating to the blanket TBR calculations, considering the structural factors.

For KSTAR ICE where the separation of spectral peak frequencies is close to the proton cyclotron frequency at the outer plasma edge, we show that the driving population of energetic ions is likely to be a subset of the 3 MeV fusion protons, born centrally on deeply passing orbits which drift from the core to the edge plasma.

We report first principles modelling of this scenario using a particle-in-cell erveille, which evolves the full orbit dynamics of large numbers of energetic protons, thermal deuterons, and electrons self-consistently with the electric and magnetic fields.

The Fourier transform of the excited fields in the nonlinear saturated regime of the simulations is the theoretical counterpart to the measured ICE spectra. goi

Multiple simulation runs for different, adjacent, values of the plasma density under KSTAR edge conditions enable us to infer the theoretical dependence of ICE spectral structure on the local electron number density.

By matching this density dependence to the observed time-dependence of chirping ICE spectra in KSTAR, we obtain sub-microsecond time resolution of the evolving local electron number density during the ELM crash. Candidate control schemes for basic magnetic control, including divertor operation and kinetic control of the electron density with gas puffing and pellet injection, were developed.

Commissioning of the auxiliary heating systems is included as well as support functions for stray field topology and real-time plasma boundary reconstruction. Initial exception handling schemes for faults of essential plant systems and for disruption protection were developed.

The PCS architecture was also developed to be capable of handling basic control for early commissioning and the advanced control functions that will be needed for future high performance operation.


A plasma control simulator is also being reveillf to test and validate control schemes. To handle the complexity of the ITER PCS, a systems alqm approach has been adopted with the development of a plasma control database to keep track of all control requirements.

This overview covers recent developments in the theory of runaway electrons in tokamaks. Its main purpose is to outline the intuitive basis for first-principle advancements in runaway electron physics. The overview highlights ti following physics aspects of the runaway evolution: The scope of the reported studies is governed by the need to understand the behavior of runaway electrons as an essential physics element of the disruption events in ITER in order to develop an effective runaway mitigation scheme.

Maggi and JET Contributors. Stability to the type-I edge localized mode ELM in JET plasmas was investigated numerically by analyzing the stability to a peeling-ballooning mode with the effects of plasma rotation and ion reveikle drift. To take into account these effects in the stability analysis self-consistently, the procedure of JET equilibrium reconstruction was updated to include the profiles of ion temperature and toroidal rotation, which are determined based on the measurement data in experiments.

The key difference is that the rotation shear in JET-ILW plasmas analyzed in this study is larger than that in JET-C ones, the shear which enhances the dynamic pressure destabilizing a peeling-ballooning mode.

Though such modes with high toroidal mode number are strongly stabilized by the ion diamagnetic drift effect, it was found that plasma rotation can sometimes overcome this stabilizing effect and destabilizes the peeling-ballooning modes in JET-ILW.

The mode onset occurs when the the ohmic heating input is less than the radiative cooling loss, which agrees with the mode onset behavior of the thermo-resistive model.

The evolution of the equilibrium during roi mode process was obtained using the ONETWO transport code, with inputs comprising the experimental electron temperature and density profiles.

Non-uniformity effects of the edge radial electric field, E ron edge transport barrier ETB formation have been identified with high-spatiotemporal reveills spectroscopic measurement. We identified the decisive importance of E r -curvature i. On the other hand, the E r -shear i.

A significant reduction of the inferred ion thermal transport coefficient in the pedestal region,due to the non-uniformity effects of E r was also confirmed quantitatively in the H-mode plasma at the initial ELM-free phase.

When the inhomogeneity of radial electric field became strong enough, the inferred value was close to its neoclassical one at the reveill ELM-free H-phase until 1st type-I ELM onset. These suggest that the electron turbulent transport is suppressed further. The nonlinear evolution of the double tearing mode is numerically investigated in 2D geometry. Long and thin current sheets are found to be formed and become tearing unstable in the high Lundquist number regime during the fast reconnection phase, leading to the onset of the secondary and tertiary islands plasmoids.

Eventually the system saturates at a roi state with those islands coexisting in two pairs. Interestingly, a new evolution process, characterized by two fast reconnection phases, is also discovered for an intermediate distance between the two resonant surfaces due to the evolution of current ribbons associated with the secondary island. These results are obtained only when the symmetry of magnetic configuration is strictly guaranteed in alm calculations. Revsille paper presents DD neutron flux measurements in neutron beam tol NBI experiments aimed at revveille optimization of target plasma and heating beam parameters to achieve maximum neutron flux in the TUMAN-3M compact tokamak.

Two ion sources of different design were used, which allowed the separation of the beam’s energy and power influence on the neutron rate. Using the database of experiments performed with the two ion sources, an empirical scaling was derived describing the neutron rate dependence on the target plasma and heating beam parameters. Li, Yuejiang Shi, P. The temporal-spatial structures of plasma flows and turbulence around tearing mode islands are presented.

Approaching to the last closed flux surface for the magnetic islands, the radially elongated flow structure forms. The flows are concentrated near separatrix and show quadrupole structures. The turbulence is concentrated near X-point and partly trapped inside the magnetic islands.

Research towards a plasma exhaust solution for a fusion power plant aims at validating to physics models, strengthening predictive capabilities and improving the divertor configuration. The TCV tokamak is extensively used to investigate the extent that geometric configuration modifications can affect plasma exhaust performance. Recent TCV experiments continue previous detachment studies of Ohmically heated L-mode plasmas in standard single-null configurations, benefitting from a range of improved diagnostic capabilities.

Studies were extended to nitrogen seeding and an entire ala, of alternative magnetic configurations, including flux flaring towards the target X divertorincreasing the outer target radius Super-X and movement of a secondary x -point reeveille the vessel X -point target as well as the entire range of snowflake configurations.


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Nitrogen seeding into a snowflake minus configuration demonstrated a regime with strong radiation in the large region between the two x -points, confirming EMC3-Eirene simulations, and opening a promising path towards highly radiating regimes with limited adverse effects on core performance. Na, Yong-Su Na, C. Kwon, Hogun Jhang, Y. Dedicated experiments have been performed in KSTAR Ohmic plasmas to investigate the detailed physics of the rotation reversal phenomena.

Here we adapt the more general definition of rotation reversal, a large change of the intrinsic toroidal rotation gradient produced by minor changes in the control parameters Camenen et al Plasma Phys. The two main phenomenological features of the rotation reversal are the normalized toroidal rotation gradient change in the gradient region revwille the existence of an anchor point.

For the KSTAR Ohmic plasma database including the experiment results up to the experimental campaign, both features were investigated. First, the observations show that the locations of the gradient and the anchor point region are dependent on.

Second, a strong dependence of on is clearly observed in the gradient region, whereas the dependence on, and is unclear considering the usual variation of the normalized gradient length in KSTAR.

The experimental observations were compared against several theoretical models. The rotation reversal might not occur due to the transition of the dominant turbulence from the trapped electron mode to the ion temperature gradient mode or the neoclassical equilibrium effect in KSTAR.

Instead, it seems that the profile shearing effects associated with a finite ballooning tilting well reproduce the experimental observations of both the gradient region and the anchor point; the difference seems to be related to the magnetic shear and the value. Further analysis implies that the increase of in the gradient region with the increase of the collisionality would occur when the reduction of the momentum diffusivity is comparatively larger than the reduction of the residual stress.

It is supported by the perturbative analysis of the experiments and the nonlinear gyrokinetic simulations. The absence of the sign change of even when a much lower collisionality is produced by additional electron cyclotron heating brings further experimental support to this interpretation.

The effect of helium He plasma exposure, and associated surface modifications, on the thermal shock resistance of tungsten W under ITER relevant steady state and transient heat and particle loads was studied. The same exposures were ala, in hydrogen H to allow a direct comparison of the role of the ion species on the thermal shock resistance.

Exposure to He plasma pulses caused the formation of fine cracking network on W samples which occurred at a higher density and smaller depths reveolle to H pulsed plasma irradiation. Transient loading experiments were also performed using a high power tio laser during He plasma exposure, showing a significant modification of the target thermal response caused by the surface damage.

The effect of He-induced morphology changes on the thermal response modification was found to be very small compared to that of transient-induced damage. Long range tio chirping of Bernstein—Greene—Kruskal modes, whose existence is determined by the fast particles, is investigated in cases where these particles do not move freely and their motion is bounded to restricted orbits.

A nonuniform equilibrium magnetic field is included into the bump-on-tail instability problem of a plasma wave.

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The parallel field gradients account for the existence of different orbit topologies of energetic particles. The Poisson equation is solved numerically along with bounce averaging the Vlasov equation in the adiabatic regime. We demonstrate that the shape and the saturation amplitude of the nonlinear mode structure depends not only on the amount of deviation from the initial eigenfrequency but also on the initial energy of the resonant electrons in the equilibrium magnetic field.

Similarly, the results reveal that the resonant electrons following different equilibrium orbits in the nonuniform field lead to different rates of frequency evolution. As compared to the previous model Breizman Nucl. Alsm 50it is shown that the frequency alaam with lower rates.

The additional physics included in the model enables a more complete 1D rreveille of the range toii phenomena observed in experiments. A fully-kinetic ion and gyrokinetic electron Vlasov—Maxwell particle simulation model is derived through Lie transform perturbation theory for Hamiltonian systems in terms of four ordering parameters, and.

This model is closed by the field equations of Poisson’s equation and Ampere’ law. This scheme preserves the phase-space volume, and retains the ion cyclotron motion, while fine scale electron motion is ignored, so that the frequency falls in the range.

Using a perturbative methodand ignoring revelile high order terms, this model is then formulated in a magnetic flux coordinate system with equilibrium Maxwellian distribution of particles.